Adhesion
Adhesive effect between a firm surface area and a substance, solution or particle

Amino acid
Basic building block of a protein

Amino acid sequence
The amino acid order or sequence within a protein chain

Amino acid spectrum
Amino acid composition in %

Amphoteric
(Greek: amphoteros = both) Substances that can be both cationic and anionic in character

Anion surfactant
Surface-active substances containing one or more functional anion-active groups

aw-value
The free water content (water activity) in food is decisive when it comes to chemical and microbiological decomposition. Favourable aw-values are less than 0.8; the highest degree of safety is given with aw-values less than 0.4

Big-Bags
Large bags for holding 800-1,000 kg product

BIOWASH
A protein surfactant for use in environmentally compatible detergents

Bloom value
The degree of firmness of a gel. The bloom value is the force required for a punch of defined form and dimension to penetrate 4 mm deep into the surface of a 6.7% gelatine solution. The bloom values of commercially available gelatines are between 80 and 280

Bone chip
Chipped, degreased and dried bone from which, subsequent to demineralisation (see mazeration), gelatine is produced

Bovine
Originating from cattle (e.g. raw materials)

Certification
A Quality Management System based on international standard ISO 9001

Coacervation
The process by which a dissolved (oil-based) colloidal polymer is transformed from the dissolved state to that of a solid precipitate

Coagulation
The conversion of a solution to a gel in conjunction with precipitation

Coalescence
The joining up of the drops of an emulsion to form a compact liquid phase

Cohesion
The internal force that holds substances together

Collagen surfactant
A modified collagen protein with good washing properties and excellent skin compatibility

Colloids
The smallest particles in a liquid or solid phase

Dispersion
System comprising a continuous phase and one or more finely distributed discontinuous phases

Elastin
Component of animal connective tissue. Elastin maintains the elasticity of skin, tendons and ligaments subsequent to minor deformation

Enzyme stabilisers
Short-chained proteins that prolong the effectiveness of enzymes

Essential amino acids
Amino acids not synthesised by the body but required for life. These amino acids must be ingested with food

EXTRACO
Subsidiary company in Klippan, Sweden
since June 2003 GELITA SWEDEN AB

GELATINE PRODUCTS Ltd.
Subsidiary company in Runcorn, England
since June 2003 GELITA UK Ltd.

Gelatine sponges
Foamed sponges used in surgical applications to staunch blood flow

GELITA®
Trade name for products produced by GELITA

GELITA COLLAGEL®
Product of GELITA; a high-molecular gelatine partial hydrolysate used in the production of confectionery

GELITA GELIDERM®
A mild protein surfactant for use in cosmetics

Hard capsules
Hollow capsules of various sizes made of pure gelatine with or without the addition of dye. They comprise an upper and lower part; these are joined together once filling is completed
 

Hydrolysate
A reaction product obtained when a compound is cleaved through the effect of water. Protein hydrolysates occur subsequent to thermal, chemical or enzymatic degradation. During the reaction, large molecules are decomposed into soluble proteins, peptides and amino acids

Hydroxyproline
An amino acid present only in collagenous protein

Instant gelatine
Powder gelatine capable of swelling in cold water

ISO 9001
International Quality Management Certification System

Keratin
Structural protein present in hair and nails

KIND & KNOX
Subsidiary company in Iowa, USA
since June 2003 GELITA USA Inc.

Mazeration
A process by which calcium phosphate is removed from degreased bone chip. The mineral-free raw material thus obtained is known as ossein and is used in the production of gelatine

Methacrylated gelatine
A gelatine modified with methacrylate groups. Used for the production of technical intermediaries

Micro-encapsulation
Surrounding of a finely distributed solid or liquid phase (substances or dissolved substances) with film-forming polymer (gelatine) which then encloses the phase subsequent to emulsification and coacervation or surface polymerisation

Mouthfeeling
A complex sensory impression obtained when eating. The sensory aspects are based on hardness, elasticity, toughness, viscosity and other properties of food as sensed by the lips, teeth, tongue and the oral cavity

Nutritional physiology
The science of the influence of nutrition and foodstuffs on the natural processes of the body

Ossein
Demineralised bone - gelatine raw material

Osteoporosis
A bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density and appearance of small holes in bones due to loss of minerals

Permeability
Ability of membranes (or foils) to allow gases and dissolved substances to pass through

Plasma expander
Blood replacement substance based on modified gelatine

Protective colloid
Polymeric compounds that stabilise colloids due to their affinity for water and oil. Colloidal systems are distributions of atoms (ca. 103 - 109) in solvents

Purine
Degradation product of uric acid, mainly found in meat. Can cause gout if metabolic disorders are also present

SARGEL
Subsidiary company in Mococa, Brazil
since June 2003 GELITA DO BRASIL Ltda.

Skeletal proteins
Skeletal proteins, also known as scleroproteins are those proteins providing a support function within the body. They are insoluble in water and possess a fibrous structure. These proteins include e.g. keratin that occurs in hair and nails, the elastins and the collagens that occur in support and connective tissue, skin, bone and cartilage

Soft capsules
Elastic capsule made of gelatine for filling with active ingredient/excipient mixture. Can be produced with different wall thicknesses and either with or without a seam

Split
Gelatine raw material; mid-layer of the connective tissue of cattle hide

Succinylated gelatine
A succinic acid anhydride-modified gelatine with excellent swelling properties

Surfactant
Substances that decrease surface tension

Syneresis
Loss of liquid from a gel due to temperature fluctuation or ageing (e.g. serum exudate/whey exuding from yoghurt)

Thermoreversibility
Conversion of liquid to solid state and vice versa through the influence of temperature

Thickening agent
High-molecular substances that are soluble or which can be dispersed or swollen in water to form viscous solutions, pseudo-gels or gels

Triple helix
Basic structure of collagen consisting of 3 protein chains. These often possess somewhat different amino acid sequences. Collagen e.g. comprises one type I, two type *1s and one type *2, each of which consist of about 1,000 amino acids

Type A gelatine
acid digested gelatine

Type B gelatine
Alkali (basic) digested gelatine

Wheat protein hydrolysate
Water-soluble hydrolysate isolated from wheat protein by enzyme action